The state of Odisha in eastern India has approved investment proposals for four green hydrogen production projects worth a combined 458.6bn rupees ($5.5bn).

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Two of these projects aim to ultimately produce vast quantities of ammonia.

Welspun New Energy, a subsidiary of Mumbai-headquartered conglomerate Welspun, is developing a facility expected to produce around 700,000 tonnes of green NH3 in Kendrapara.

This plant is expected to cost 138.6bn rupees ($1.66bn), or 19.5% of the cost of the Neom green ammonia project in Saudi Arabia, which is nearly twice the size.

Similarly, an Indian green-hydrogen-focused subsidiary of Singaporean energy firm Sembcorp has received approval for a 720,000 tonnes-a-year green ammonia project at the Tata Steel Special Economic Zone in Gopalpur expected to cost even less, at 130bn rupees ($1.56bn).

The Odisha government has also approved a new ammonia storage tank facility, also in Gopalpur, capable of storing 80,000 tonnes of NH3. This new storage capacity will be developed by Aegis Vopak at a cost of 10bn rupees ($119m).

Meanwhile, ReNew E-fuels Private Limited (REFPL), a special purpose vehicle set up by Indian renewable energy giant ReNew, has received approval for two green hydrogen-based methanol plants.

The first in Malkangiri, capable of producing 100,000 tonnes of hydrogen as feedstock for 500,000 tonnes of methanol a year, is expected to cost around 100bn ($1.2bn) rupees.

The other, smaller project in Rayagada, which is expected to annually produce 60,000 tonnes of H2 and 300,000 tonnes of methanol, will cost 90bn ($1.08bn) rupees.

Further details on these ammonia and methanol projects, including whether they will seek offtake from domestic markets or target exports, are yet to be disclosed.

India targets at least five million tonnes of clean hydrogen production by 2030, with the federal government floating a potential mandate on industries such as chemicals, oil refining, steel and cement to start using a minimum percentage of green H2 in their overall use.

The federal government launched its first subsidy auction for green hydrogen in July this year, although this is capped at 450,000 tonnes of total annual H2 production capacity.